In early years, the conventional psychoanalytic stance that gamblers are neurotic masochists has been doubted by practicing psychiatrists.
Following a study of fifty distressed gamblers in England, E. Moran theorized that problem gambling progresses basically from a source of environmental and social areas. 20 percent of his subjects could be called neurotics, and even a few represented a masochistic urge to lose.
He also contended that the word compulsive gambling was inaccurate and not fitting, since gamblers do not show signs of real compulsion, that is, encouraging an activity which is felt to be foreign and is therefore constantly feared and resisted.
He also suggested that the word pathological compensates compulsive as a label of this behavioral disorder. Moran also pointed out that the significance of subcultural gambling that mounts out of the individual’s acquaintanceship with gaming and familiarity with other gamblers, disclosed that in some working class areas the nongambler would be seen as an outsider.
Sanford Chapman, after studying gambling experiences, theorized that Bergler’s unconscious-urge-to-lose theory is not pertinent to categorical gaming situations.
The psychiatrist also noted that problem gamblers normally are anxious players who seek action more than losing in gambling. Chapman admonished that gambling is hard and that participants constantly lose money, and suggested that the issue is not that gamblers need to lose, but that they simply need to engage in gambling.
Robert Custer, one of the dominating figures in the area of compulsive gambling, concluded that only a less number of people – like 10 to 20 percent, show neurotic symptoms. He also found no significant evidence that gambler present an unconscious desire to lose.
For Custer, the pathological, compulsive or gambling disorder shows a concurrence of of various social, biological, psychological, and cultural factors.
In 1980, he was also instrumental in persuading the American Psychiatric Association to add pathological gambling in its Diagnostic and Statistics Manual III. Custer is firm that problem gamblers carefully appear like substance addicts, becoming hopelessly reliant on gambling to give them with stimulating experiences.
Moreover, he believes that compulsive gambling is an illness that is addictive, in which the individual is motivated by an uncontrollable, compelling urge to gamble. The impulse perseveres, and develops in urgency and intensity, taking more of the gambler’s time, stamina, material and emotional resources.
Sequentially, it takes over, undermines and always expunges everything that is deep in a person’s life. Custer, on his part, had been influential in changing of gambling’s classic psychoanalytic view.
They have conspicuously attested, through factual observation, that gambling is more than an alternative for masturbation or an assertion of unsolved oedipal conflict.